How to Remove Renal Stones (Kidney Stones)

How to Remove Renal Stones (Kidney Stones)

RENAL CALCULI ( Review)

Description

  • Calculi are stones that can form anywhere in the urinary tract; however, the most frequent site is the kidneys.
  • Problems resulting from calculi are pain, obstruction, tissue trauma, secondary hemorrhage, and infection.
  • The stone can be located through radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; intravenous pyelography; CT scanning; and renal ultrasonography.
  • A stone analysis will be done after passage to determine the type of stone and assist in determining

Urolithiasis refers to the formation of urinary calculi; these form in the ureters.

  • Nephrolithiasis refers to the formation of kidney calculi; these form in the renal parenchyma.
  • When a calculus occludes the ureter and blocks the flow of urine, the ureter dilates, producing hydroureter .
  • If the obstruction is not removed, urinary stasis results in infection, impairment of renal function on the side of the blockage, hydronephrosis , and irreversible kidney damage.

Causes

  • Family history of stone formation
  • Diet high in calcium, vitamin D, protein, oxalate, purines, or alkali
  • Obstruction and urinary stasis
  • Dehydration
  • Use of diuretics,which can cause volume depletion
  • Urinary tract infections and prolonged urinary catheterization
  • Immobilization
  • Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism
  • Elevated uric acid level, such as in gout

Assessment

  • Renal colic, which originates in the lumbar region and radiates around the side and down to the testicles in men and to the bladder in women
  • Ureteral colic, which radiates toward the genitalia and thighs
  • Sharp, severe pain of sudden onset
  • Dull, aching pain in the kidney
  • Nausea and vomiting, pallor, and diaphoresis during acute pain
  • Urinary frequency, with alternating retention
  • Signs of a urinary tract infection
  • Low-grade fever
  • High numbers of red blood cells, white blood
  • cells, and bacteria noted in the urinalysis report
  • Gross hematuria

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